This article will help you:
Amplitude’s Funnel Analysis chart helps you understand how users are navigating defined paths ("funnels") within your product, and identify potential problem areas where users tend to drop off.
A common example of a funnel is successfully onboarding. Amplitude considers a user to be converted through a funnel if they fire the events you specified, in the specified order.
This article will outline the steps required to build a funnel analysis in Amplitude.
Before you begin
If you haven’t already read the overview of Amplitude’s Funnel Analysis chart, you should do so before trying to build your first funnel analysis. You should also familiarize yourself with the basics of how charts work in Amplitude.
If you've already built your funnel analysis chart, you can move on to interpret your funnel analysis chart.
Set up a funnel analysis
A funnel analysis shows how your users are navigating specific sequences of events in your product. Funnel Analysis charts are built using the Events Module and the Segmentation Module. To create a Funnel Analysis chart, you’ll just need to tell Amplitude what those events are, and which users it should include in the analysis.
NOTE: You can include both active and inactive events in your funnel analyses, but most customers find their Amplitude charts are more insightful when they focus on active events.
To build a Funnel Analysis chart, follow these steps:
- In the Events module, select the starting event. You can choose a specific event that is instrumented in Amplitude, or you can tell Amplitude to consider any event as the starting event for this analysis, by selecting Any Event from the list of available events.
- If desired, add properties to your starting event by clicking on + Filter by, selecting the property name, and specifying the property value you’re interested in.
- Next, select at least one other event. You can add properties to these events as well.
- Specify the order in which a user will have to trigger these events in order to be counted as converted—this order, any order, or exact order.
- To exclude users from your funnel who trigger specific events between steps of your funnel, click + Exclude users who did and select the exclusion event from the drop-down list. You can apply the exclusion between all steps in the funnel, or between two specific steps. For any-order funnels, users will be excluded if they fire the exclusion event between any of the funnel steps.
- In the Segmentation module, identify the user segment you want to include in this analysis. You can import a previously-saved segment by clicking Saved and selecting the one you want from the list. Otherwise, Amplitude begins from the assumption that your analysis will target all users.
NOTE: The user segment you select will only apply to the starting event.
- If you do not want to import a previously-saved user segment, you can start building your own by adding properties. To do so, click + Filter by, choose the property you want to include, and specify the property value you’re interested in.
- You can narrow your focus even further by telling Amplitude you only want to include users who have already performed certain actions. To do so, click + Performed, then choose the event you’re interested in.
- If desired, add another user segment by clicking + Add Segment, and repeating steps 6 and 7.
NOTE: You can break out your starting event by user properties by clicking … + Group by in the Events module, if desired. For example, if you wanted to group users by the cities they were in when they fired the starting event, you would select City from the property list. Amplitude will then break out the retention analysis on a city-by-city basis. However, you will only be able to include one user segment in your analysis.
Your new funnel analysis should now be visible in the chart module. The next sections will review how to dig deeper into your data with advanced analytical options.
Compare multiple events in a single step
You can compare up to three events within a single conversion step. After step 4 of building your funnel, select Compare Events at Step number from the Options fly-out menu, and then select the events to compare.
Comparing multiple events within one step is available for conversion and conversion over time metrics. Three events may be compared per step, for up to two steps at a time. Event comparisons are available for all three order options (any order, this order, exact order); however, they are not available for break downs by property nor in dashboard filters, and will be removed if a user switches between charts or funnel metrics.
Mark a step as optional
At times you will need to define a conversion where some of the steps are optional. For example, a funnel has steps A, B, C, and D, where B is optional. If a user performs steps A, C, and D, they would still convert.
Click in the Events side control and select Optional step to make a step optional.
When an event is marked optional, the side control will say *Optional and have a dotted line around it.
The chart will then show two funnels - one with the step and one without the step. The conversion take-aways and breakdown table will also reflect these two scenarios.
There are some limitations to marking a step as optional:
It is available for Conversion and Conversion Over Time only.
Only one step can be optional at a time.
Only middle steps can be optional. First and last steps can never be optional.
Optional events cannot be reordered.
Events with a group-by cannot be optional.
Events comparing multiple events cannot be optional.
In-line custom events can also be created in Funnel and Event Segmentation charts for beta users. Read this article for more information.
Compare group-by values to each other
Funnel charts also allow you to compare a group-by property to another baseline property. Once your Funnel chart has a Segment property group-by, click the Compare dropdown to choose a value for comparison.
With that value selected, the conversion percentage difference will be seen on the microscope when hovering over a value in the visual, and the breakdown table. For a particular step in the breakdown table, you’ll see both the absolute percent difference and the conversion percent difference.
There are some limitations to Segment property group-by comparisons:
- They are only available for Conversion and Conversion Over Time.
- They are applicable to Compare to Property Value or Compare to Past only.
- You are limited to a maximum of two Segment group-bys.
Combine events inline
You can explore event combinations directly in the chart controls without needing to create and save a permanent custom event. Follow these steps to add a custom event for inline comparison:
- Click in the Events side control and select Combine events inline.
- Next, click Add event inline to add a custom event. Add the number of custom events you need.
NOTE: The in-line event that you create will only be relevant to that specific chart and will not be accessible anywhere else.
- If desired, hover on the event and click to add event properties. Add as many filter properties as needed for each in-line event.
- Click to remove properties and in-line events, as needed.
Note that custom events cannot contain other custom events. Also, Show User Journeys, Explore Conversion Drivers and Show User Paths are not available via the Microscope for in-line event steps in funnels.
How Amplitude computes funnels
Unlike other charts, a Funnel Analysis requires you to specify the order of the events you include in the Events Module. Your options are:
- Any order;
- This order; or
- Exact order.
Any order is exactly what it sounds like: as long as a user completes all the steps listed, Amplitude will consider them converted. Users who fire the later events without firing the first event are not considered to be part of the funnel; they have to fire the first event for that to happen.
This order requires users fire the events you selected in the order you specified before Amplitude will consider them to be converted. However, users may fire other events in between the ones you're interested in, and Amplitude will still count them among the converted.
NOTE: When using this order, you can repeat events in your funnel. If you have defined a funnel as Event A -> Event A -> Event B, a user will be counted as converted if they fired Event A at least twice, and then fired Event B later. There are no limits to the number of times an event can appear in the funnel definition.
Exact order is a stricter version of this order, in that users will not be counted as converted if they fire other events in between the ones listed. If a user deviates from the steps listed in the Events Module in any way, Amplitude will consider them to have dropped off.
NOTE: In ordered funnels, each event is included in exactly one conversion path. For example, imagine you have an ordered funnel with just two events:
search -> add to cart. If a user searches four times and then adds a product to their cart after that last search—
search, search, search, search, add to cart—Amplitude will record one conversion, even though there were four occurrences of the funnel's first step.
How Amplitude handles simultaneous events
Amplitude rounds all time to the nearest second. For that reason, it maintains a one-second window to account for simultaneous events. If a user fires two different events within one second, Amplitude will not try to make a determination of which one came first. Instead, it will consider either order correct and apply that to your funnel.
For example, if a user fires Event B first, and then fires Event A within one second, a funnel will count this as a conversion from either Event A -> Event B, or Event B -> Event A.
If two of the same event types are sent within the same second, then Amplitude will count only one of those events.
If, in an exact order funnel, an event that is not part of your funnel definition is simultaneously fired in the same second, Amplitude will still consider that user to have converted.
NOTE: When using Historical Count filters on the same events that occur within the same second, users will appear to have dropped off. This is because the funnel query doesn't distinguish between events that happen within the same second, but the Historical Count filter does.
How Amplitude handles segmenting on a user property
When you segment the data on a user property, Amplitude will apply the segmentation to the first step of your funnel.
For example, suppose Event A is the first step of your funnel, and a user fired:
- Event B with the user property
Canada; and then
- Event A with the user property
If you were to segment "...by Active country(s)," Amplitude will show this user in the
[Amplitude] Country =
United States segment in the Event A step.
Next, it's time to interpret your funnel analysis.